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God Of Empire THE EMPIRE'S COLLECTIONS VideoWarhammer Fantasy Lore - Empire Religion \u0026 Gods, Part 1
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Sort order. Apr 10, marcus miller rated it really liked it Shelves: religion , europe. Crossan presents an interpretation of history, civilization, and scripture which I found to be thought provoking.
Crossan analyzes the nature of civilization and empire and asks if empire is the natural outgrowth of civilization.
Crossan argues that we have come to accept as normal "civilization's program of religion, war, victory, peace Crossan examines the Roman Empire and isn't afraid to draw parallels to the United States.
Using his knowledge of Rome, Crossan examines the life of Jesus and Paul within the matrix not context of the Roman Empire.
I found these parts of the book to be fascinating as it added new depths to my understanding of Jesus and scripture. Crossan also argues that the Bible "presents the radicality of a just and nonviolent God repeatedly and relentlessly confronting the normalcy and of an unjust and violent civilization.
It certainly made me refer to the scriptures he was analyzing. I would encourage people who wonder about the relevance of Christianity to read this book.
Crossan makes the Christian message relevant to Rome and by extension to the United States. This is one of Crossan's finest works. The basic premise is that the Kingdom of God as understood by Jesus and the lordship of Christ as taught by Paul are anti-imperial - not just anti-Rome, which of course they are, but opposed to what Crossan aptly calls "the normalcy of Civilization.
Crossan argues, quite compellingly, that the normalcy of civilization is both a hierarchy which privileges some and oppresses and exploits others, and also committed to violence - the claim that peace can only be This is one of Crossan's finest works.
Crossan argues, quite compellingly, that the normalcy of civilization is both a hierarchy which privileges some and oppresses and exploits others, and also committed to violence - the claim that peace can only be achieved by violent conquest of one's enemies and violent punishment of those who upset the established order.
Anyone who knows anything about human history will see that Crossan is clearly correct that this is indeed the normal way human civilization operates.
The alternative vision of Jesus and Paul negates the normal ways of civilization. Jesus and Paul preach an egalitarian vision in which all stand equal before God and are called to hare equally in each other's resources.
Equally importantly, Jesus and Paul eschew violence in favor of non-violent approach to living and being. Simply read Matthew , Acts 4: , and Galatians 3: 28 and you will quickly see that Crossan has solid textual support his position Near the end of the book Crossan contrasts the non-violent Jesus of who walked the earth and the fantasy of violent retribution of the Jesus of Revelation and much current theology.
We cannot have both, we must choose either a violent or non-violent Jesus. The former is the Jesus of apocalyptic vengeance, the later the Jesus of history.
The choice is important, Crossan argues, not only because only non-violence and egalitarianism can save the human race, but also because the choice determines how we see God.
Is God a patriarchal and violent deity? Or a non-violent and egalitarian deity? A fine read and a must read for anyone who, as we all should be, is worried about the rise of "violent religion" in much of the world today.
Oct 22, Adna rated it really liked it Shelves: reviewed , english-language. God and Empire is a good introduction to Crossan's view of Jesus as a non-violent 'peace by justice' figure.
Those who have read other works by Crossan will be familiar with this characterization, but this book gives it a solid foundation in historical and biblical accounts of Jesus' life and time, and includes an amusing and enlightening juxtaposition of the titles of Roman Imperial theology with the titles given to Jesus by his followers.
Most interesting to me was Crossan's discussion of the God and Empire is a good introduction to Crossan's view of Jesus as a non-violent 'peace by justice' figure.
Most interesting to me was Crossan's discussion of the letters of Paul: which are really his, and how was the essence of his message changed in the later 'Pauline' letters?
Also interesting was Crossan's analysis of the Book of Revelation, famously labelled 'merely the ravings of a maniac' by Thomas Jefferson, who suggested it was 'no more worthy nor capable of explanation than the incoherences of our own nightly dreams'.
Crossan rises to the challenge, and does so quite convincingly. In the end then, Crossan suggests three main forces are at work: the imperial 'peace by victory' crowd that has been the norm of human civilization for thousands of years, the Christian 'peace by justice' movement as promoted by Jesus and Paul, and the genocidal 'peace by death' faction who, one presumes, spends its days waiting for Jesus to appear on his white battle charger, sword in hand.
Crossan is emphatic in his rejection of this latter interpretation of the Christian message, and points out that the battle chargers of today come in the form of intercontinental ballistic missiles and nuclear bombs.
He argues that such a misinterpretation of 'The Second Coming of Christ' is a mistake humanity can ill afford to make. Though Crossan phrases his questions to his readers in an American context, I suppose they apply equally to Christians in other parts of the world.
He calls on Christians to ask themselves if their God is violent or non-violent, and suggests the life and sayings of Jesus are the answer: "Put your sword back into its place; for all who take the sword will perish by the sword.
Orthodox readers may be familiar with Fr. In other words, the Old Testament is a nonviolent literary assault against the Hellenist kingdom s.
Crossan begins by showing that Rome created an empire of peace Pax Romana through violent Orthodox readers may be familiar with Fr. Crossan begins by showing that Rome created an empire of peace Pax Romana through violent military victory.
Herod the Great, and then Herod Antipas, built their empires by taking a page out of the Roman playbook: romanization through urbanization for commercialization.
In other words, they violently oppressed the Galileans and Judeans at the time of Jesus to build up their own little empires. Notice, God's justice is a nonviolent redistribution rather than a violent retribution as many contemporary Christians think.
I think this search is misleading. There is no Jesus outside of the biblical texts. I highly recommend this book and encourage everyone to be challenged by it.
Aug 14, Emma Maskell rated it really liked it. He references his previous works in his introduction and, to begin with, I felt I may have jumped into the deep end.
However, as I proceeded I found it a compelling read. I often paused for thought finding myself inspired with ideas or new questions to explore.
For example I want to know more about the process of creating a conservative Paul and I will look further into the archaeological findings described.
It is simply enlightening. Even more positively, peaceful insistence upon peace? Perhaps instead we embrace what it is we do stand for without feeling the need to impose it upon others, but by that example others may also embrace the longed for way of peace.
A mentally nourishing and stimulating read. Truly radical. Jun 24, Ross West rated it really liked it. This book is largely an interpretation of Scripture in relation to history that attempts to contrast the vision of God in Scripture and the "normalcy," as Crossan calls it, of the violence of civilization.
In the preface, Crossan states that he is raising "three questions in this book for American Christians or better, for Christian Americans. In the preface, Crossan states that he is raising "three questions in this book for American Christians — or better, for Christian Americans.
In addition, the book deals much more with biblical times than with more recent times. However, I did find it to be a creative, thought-provoking interpretation of Scripture, especially the over-arching thrust of Scripture as Crossan understands it.
I resonated especially with chapter three, "Jesus and the Kingdom of God," and chapter four, "Paul and the Justice of Equality. View all 4 comments.
May 26, Matthew rated it really liked it Shelves: religion , theology. I normally have an ambivalent relationship with Crossan's work, but I like the direction he is going with this book.
Treating Roman imperial rhetoric as theological statements, Crossan presents early Christianity as a non-violent counter-theology in direct confrontation with Roman "peace through victory".
Good stuff. Timely and important thoughts from Crossan about living in the heart of global empire while attempting to live from the heart and be a disciple of Jesus.
The monastery presents an alternative lifestyle that implicitly criticizes the greed, injustice, and oppression of our everyday world. It is a mode of semicommunal or fully communal life witnessing that violence is not the inevitability of human nature but only the normalcy of human civilization They are there together from one end of it to the other.
Indeed, they often coexist in the same book or even in the same chapter. So once again, are we to take them both and worship a God of both violence and nonviolence, or must we choose between them and recognize, as I am arguing, that the Bible proposes the radicality of a nonviolent God struggling with the normalcy of a violent civilization?
Is that its dignity, its integrity, its authority—for any Christian—and its value for any human being? My proposal is that the Christian Bible presents the radicality of a just and nonviolent God repeatedly and relentlessly confronting the normalcy of an unjust and violent civilization.
Again and again throughout the biblical tradition, God's radical vision for nonviolent justice is offered, and again and again we manage to mute it back into the normalcy of violent injustice.
The present Kingdom is a collaborative eschaton between the human and divine worlds. The Great Divine Cleanup is an interactive process with a present beginning in time and a future short or long?
Would it happen without God? Would it happen without believers? To see the presence of the Kingdom of God, said Jesus, come, see how we live, and then live likewise To experience the Kingdom, he asserted, come, see how we live, and then live like us.
This invitation presumes that Jesus was promulgating not just a vision or a theory but a praxis and a communal program, and that this program was not just for himself but for others as well.
What was it? Basically it was this: heal the sick, eat with those you heal, and announce the Kingdom's presence in that mutuality.
It was a protest from the legal and prophetic heart of Judaism against Jewish religious cooperation with Roman imperial control.
It was, at least for Christian followers of Jesus, then or now, a permanently valid protest demonstration against any capital city's collusion between conservative religion and imperial violence at any time and in any place.
Substitutionary atonement is bad as theoretical Christian theology just as suicidal terrorism is bad as practical Islamic theology.
Jesus died because of our sins, or from our sins, but that should never be misread as for our sins. In Jesus, the radicality of God became incarnate, and the normalcy of civilization's brutal violence our sins, or better, Our Sin executed him.
Jesus's execution asks us to face the truth that, across human evolution, injustice has been created and maintained by violence while justice has been opposed and avoided by violence.
That warning, if heeded, can be salvation. But if God does all the willing and working, why should we fear and tremble?
Not because the radicality of God will punish us if we fail, but because the normalcy of civilization will punish us if we succeed.
We think of ourselves as composed of body and soul, or flesh and spirit. When they are separated, we have a physical corpse. After his death and deification, the title was awarded to each of his successors.
It also became a near ubiquitous title or honour for various minor local deities, including the Lares Augusti of local communities, and obscure provincial deities such as the North African Marazgu Augustus.
This extension of an Imperial honorific to major and minor deities of Rome and her provinces is considered a ground-level feature of Imperial cult.
Augusta , the feminine form, is an honorific and title associated with the development and dissemination of Imperial cult as applied to Roman Empresses , whether living, deceased or deified as divae.
The first Augusta was Livia , wife of Octavian , and the title is then shared by various state goddesses including Bona Dea , Ceres , Juno , Minerva , and Ops ; by many minor or local goddesses; and by the female personifications of Imperial virtues such as Pax and Victoria.
During the Republic, the epithet may be most prominent with Bona Dea , "the Good Goddess" whose rites were celebrated by women. Bonus Eventus , "Good Outcome", was one of Varro's twelve agricultural deities, and later represented success in general.
From the middle Imperial period, the title Caelestis , "Heavenly" or "Celestial" is attached to several goddesses embodying aspects of a single, supreme Heavenly Goddess.
The Dea Caelestis was identified with the constellation Virgo "The Virgin" , who holds the divine balance of justice.
In the Metamorphoses of Apuleius ,  the protagonist Lucius prays to the Hellenistic Egyptian goddess Isis as Regina Caeli , " Queen of Heaven ", who is said to manifest also as Ceres, "the original nurturing parent"; Heavenly Venus Venus Caelestis ; the "sister of Phoebus ", that is, Diana or Artemis as she is worshipped at Ephesus ; or Proserpina as the triple goddess of the underworld.
Juno Caelestis was the Romanised form of the Carthaginian Tanit. Grammatically, the form Caelestis can also be a masculine word, but the equivalent function for a male deity is usually expressed through syncretization with Caelus , as in Caelus Aeternus Iuppiter, "Jupiter the Eternal Sky.
Invictus "Unconquered, Invincible" was in use as a divine epithet by the early 3rd century BC. In the Imperial period, it expressed the invincibility of deities embraced officially, such as Jupiter, Mars, Hercules , and Sol.
Cicero considers it a normal epithet for Jupiter, in regard to whom it is probably a synonym for Omnipotens. It is also used in the Mithraic mysteries.
Mater "Mother" was an honorific that respected a goddess's maternal authority and functions, and not necessarily "motherhood" per se.
Vesta , a goddess of chastity usually conceived of as a virgin, was honored as Mater. A goddess known as Stata Mater was a compital deity credited with preventing fires in the city.
From the middle Imperial era, the reigning Empress becomes Mater castrorum et senatus et patriae , the symbolic Mother of military camps, the senate , and the fatherland.
The Gallic and Germanic cavalry auxilia of the Roman Imperial army regularly set up altars to the "Mothers of the Field" Campestres , from campus , "field," with the title Matres or Matronae.
Gods were called Pater "Father" to signify their preeminence and paternal care, and the filial respect owed to them. Pater was found as an epithet of Dis , Jupiter , Mars , and Liber , among others.
Some Roman literary sources accord the same title to Maia and other goddesses. Even in invocations , which generally required precise naming, the Romans sometimes spoke of gods as groups or collectives rather than naming them as individuals.
Some groups, such as the Camenae and Parcae , were thought of as a limited number of individual deities, even though the number of these might not be given consistently in all periods and all texts.
He is a father, husband, author, martial arts black belt, and an expert in Gnosticism, the occult, and esotericism. He describes Kali as she is revered traditionally in Bengal by saying,.
Hence the sword, the head, and a third hand extended, bestowing life. Shiva, Her husband, represents God in His vibrationless state, beyond creation.
Thus, He is depicted as supine. You put your hands to your mouth. Kali is depicted as dancing all over creation. This dance represents the movement of cosmic vibration, in which all things exist.
Those devotees, however, who deeply long for freedom from the cosmic play worship God in the indwelling Self. Through meditation, they merge in the infinite Aum.
And from oneness with Aum they pass beyond creation, to unite their consciousness with God—timeless, eternal Bliss. The statues of Kali are not intended to depict the Divine Mother as She looks, but simply to display Her functions in the aspect of Mother Nature.
The Divine Mother is, of course, without form, though we may say also that Her body is the entire universe, with its infinity of suns and moons. She can also appear to the devotee in human form, however.
When She does so, She is enshrined in supernal beauty.